Pop Art, Surrealism & Expressionism
It was an artistic movement that emerged in the late 1950s in England and the United States. Its characteristics are the use of images and themes taken from the world of mass communication, applied to the visual arts.
It underlines the iconographic value of the consumer society. The term “Pop-Art” was used for the first time by the Dutch critic Lawrence Alloway in 1958, when defining the works of Richard Hamilton and Eduardo Paolozzi among others. Another critic, Lewis Gennig, emphasized this denomination around 1962 to define the art that some young people were making with the use of popular images; in this way, the term Neo-Dada or neodadaism was relegated to the then new aesthetic current.
Pop art is the plastic manifestation of a (pop) culture characterized by technology, capitalism, fashion and consumerism, where objects cease to be unique to be thought of as serial products. In this type of culture, art also ceases to be unique and becomes an addiction. The greatest exponent of the movement, Andy Warhol, stated that “The reason I paint this way is because I want to be a machine. “Also symbolic is Richard Hamilton’s statement regarding his desire for art to be “ephemeral, popular, cheap, mass-produced, young, ingenious.” All of them would be qualities equivalent to those of the consumer society.
The origins of pop art are in Dadaism and its little importance placed on the final art object. However, Pop Art unloads the entire anti-art philosophy of Dada from the work of art and finds a way to construct new objects from images taken from everyday life, just as Duchamp had done with his ready-mades. As for the techniques, he also takes from Dadaism the use of collage and photomontage.
Surrealism is an artistic and literary movement that emerged in France from Dadaism in the first quarter of the 20th century around the personality of the poet André Breton. He sought to discover a truth, with automatic writing, without rational corrections, using images to express his emotions, but that never followed a logical reasoning.
The surrealist goal and its means go back centuries before the birth of the movement. It is enough to quote Hieronymus Bosch “el Bosco”, considered the first surrealist artist, who in the 15th and 16th centuries created works such as “The Garden of Earthly Delights” or “The Hay Wagon”. But it was in the twentieth century when the birth of a philosophical and artistic avant-garde would emerge that would take up these elements and develop them as never before.
Expressionism is an artistic movement that emerged in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century, in accordance with French Fauvism and reflects the desire to give the viewer a vision of the artist’s feelings. It received its name in 1911 on the occasion of the Berlin Secession exhibition, which featured Fauvist paintings by Matisse and his French companions, as well as some of Pablo Picasso’s pre-Cubist works.
In 1914 the group of German painters in Dresden and Berlin from 1911 and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), formed in 1912 in Munich, around an almanac, directed by Kandinsky and Marc, were also labeled as expressionists.
Expressionism is understood as an accentuation or deformation of reality in order to adequately express the values that it is intended to highlight, and it manifested as a partial reaction to impressionism.
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